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Compiled by Abdul Razzaq Qadri
“Our Prophet, Muhammad ('alaihi 's-salâm), was born in Mekka on the Monday morning of Rabî' al-awwal 12, which coincided with April 20, 571 (mîlâdî). He passed away in Medina in the 11th year of the Hegira (m. 632). At the age 40, the angel called Jabrâ'il ('alaihi 's-salâm) revealed to him his prophethood.He emigrated (hijra) from Mekka to Medina in 622; his arrival at the Kubâ village near Medina on Monday, September 20, marks the beginning of the Muslims' Hijrî Shamsî (solar) calendar, while Muharram 1 of the same year marks the beginning of the Qamarî (lunar) calendar. The Persian Shamsî year begins six months before this, that is, on the twentieth of March, which is the day of the Magian festival.”
Reference: The Sunni Path, page 8 and 9
Note: Western Calendar (January-December) is called Gregorian and Miladi Calendar. It has been started from the Era of Prophet Hadhrat Eesa (Jesus) peace be upon him. It is also called Christian calendar and Eeswi calendar. This calendar is used in both ways Solar and Lunar. Christians observe Christmas-Birthday of Hadhrat Eesa (Jesus) peace be upon him according to solar cycle but they celebrate Easter according to lunar cycle. Islamic Calendar has been started from the time of the Migration (Hijrat) of Holy Prophet Muhammad peace and blessing be upon him according to Gregorian calendar it was year of 622, Islamic lunar calendar is eleven days shorter than the Gregorian calendar used in the Western world. In the international Gregorian calendar, the dates vary from year to year, drifting approximately 11 days earlier each year.
After the death of Holy Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him (Muslims believe that Prophets are alive in their graves) on 12th of Rabi-al-awwal 11 Hijri according to June 632, First Khalifa (King) of Islam and Muslims was Hadhrat Abu Baker siddeeq Radi-yallahu-anhu (Father-in-Law of Holy Prophet), he was elected by the Companions of Holy Prophet. Hadhrat Abu Baker Siddeeq passed away on 22nd Jamadi-al-Sani in 13 Hijri/23rd of August 634. He made his Successor Hadhrat Omar (Father-in-Law of Holy Prophet) before his death. Total age of the Hadhrat Abu Baker was 63 years.
Second Khalifa Hadhrat Omar Radi-yallahu-anhu ruled there 10 years till Zil-Hajj 23 Hijri. He was injured by a killer. He announced a committee to elect next Khalifa. Hadhrat Omar Martyred in age of 63 years on 1st of Muharram 24 Hijri/ 11th of November, 644.
Third Khalifa Hadhrat Usman عُثْمَان was elected by that Committee. He was Son-in-Law of Holy Prophet, two of the Daughters of Prophet were married with him one after another, Firstly Hadhrat Ruqayya died, and then he was married with Hadhrat Umm-e-Kalsoom. Hadhrat Usman عُثْمَان got married with Hadhrat Ruqqaya in city of Mecca. She died after migration to Medina in 2nd Hijri. Hadhrat Umme-Kalsoom died in 9th Hijri. Hadhrat Usman increased and developed Masjid-al-Haraam (situated in Mecca) in 26th Hijri and Masjid-al-Nabawi (Situated in Medina) in 29th of Hijri. Hadhrat Usman عُثْمَان was assassinated on 18th Zil-Hajj in 35 Hijri/ 20th of June 656.
Note: Holy Prophet Hadhrat حَضْرَتْ Muhammad had 4 daughters and 3 sons, three of the sons died in their childhood.
Note: A Muslim man is allowed to marry four women at a time, but there should not be two sisters as his wives at a time, he can adopt second after death of first.
And forth Khalifa was Hadhrat Ali (Cousin and Son-in-Law of Holy Prophet). YoungestDaughter of Holy Prophet Hadhrat Fatima فَاطِمَہْ حَضْرَتْ was married with Hadhrat Ali in 2nd Hijri. They had two Sons, Hadhrat Hasn (حَسْن) and Hadhrat (حُسَیْن) Husain. Imam Hasn was born in 3rd Hijri and Imam Husayn was born in 4th Hijri. Hadhrat Ali Ruled from 35 to 40 Hijri and he was assassinated on the day of 21st of Ramadan.
After the assassination of Hadhrat حَضْرَتْ Ali, people of Koofa accepted Hadhrat Imam Hasn as Khalifa and after 6 months Hadhrat Imam Hassan handed over whole kingdom to Hadhrat حَضْرَتْ Mua’wia in Rabi-al-awwal 41st Hijri on a conditioned agreement.
Hadhrat Mua’wia also was one of the companions of Holy Prophet. He ruled 20 years from 40 to 60 Hijri as a king. He had been Governor of Syria before being a king since 20 years (Syria was a province/state of Great Islamic Kingdom Khilaafat خِلَافَتْ at that time). He died in month of Rajab in 60 Hijri.
After the death of Hadhrat Mua’wia his son Yazid was appointed as a king according to his will. Yazid was a bad person and a bad sinner. Yazid was born in Era of Hadhrat Usman in 25th of Hijri. Name of his mother was Maisoon.
Hadhrat Husain refused to accept him (Yazid) as Muslim King. Hadhrat Husain received a lot of Letters from people of the city of Koofa (in Iraq). People of Koofa wanted to see him as a Muslim Khalifa. Hadhrat Imam Husain travelled from Medina to Mecca on 4th Sha’abaan in 60th of Hijri.
Hadhrat Nouman نُعْمَان bin Bashir, one of the companions of Holy Prophet was Governor of Koofa at that time. Hadhrat Imam Husain sent Hadhrat Muslim bin Aqeel (his two young sons Muhammad and Ibrahim were with him) to know the current situation of Koofa. Hadhrat Muslim bin Aqeel wrote a letter to Hadhrat Imam Husain that people of Koofa loved him so much and were ready to accept him as a Khalifa of Muslims.
Meanwhile Governor of Koofa was changed by Yazid. Name of new Governor was Abdullah bin Ziyaad. He announced there in Koofa to favor Yazid. He declared that if someone would favor Hadhrat Imam Husain he would be punished. Hadhrat Muslim bin Aqeel and his sons were killed (martyred) there in Koofa by new Governor Ibne-Ziyad. On the same day Hadhrat Imam Husain left for Koofa. People who met Hadhrat Imam Husain in his way they told him that people of Koofa Loved to him but they were standing with Banu Umayyad (Yazid) if any mishap. They suggested him to do not travel to Koofa.
On 10th of Muharram 61 Hijri on the land of Iraq (Karbala desert), army of Yazid Killed Hadhrat Husain including many of his family members and his friends there. It was first month Muharram of 61 Hijri year which coincided with 680 AD. Muslims has been cursing on Yazid and they do so still from that incident. Muslims Loved and they love still the name of Hadhrat Husain (Grand-son of Holy Prophet).